Skin Anatomy

The skin is the largest organ of the body and it has three major layers. Understanding the skin anatomy and composition allows artists to understand the cause of different healed results, why eyebrows fade, and why they change colors when they fade (more in another section). The main factor for residual pigment is the depth of pigment placement in the skin.

Three Major Layers

    • The epidermis is the outer most layer of the skin and it’s the only layer that is visible to our eyes. This layer is composed of several layers and it acts as a waterproof layer and provides the skin tone. The epidermis undergoes constant renewal. This layer is constantly shedding dead skin cells away at the top and replacing it with new healthy skin cells that has been growing in the lower level. Cell turnover occurs every 28 days in the epidermis. 
    • The epidermis contains a basal layer, which is the most bottom layer, and melanocytes, which produces melanin and gives skin its color.
    • The second layer that is under the epidermis is the dermis. This layer is thicker than the epidermis and it provides several functions for our body’s needs. 
    • The dermis consists of: hair follicles, blood vessels, sweat/oil glands, nerve endings and lymph vessels. This layer provides the necessary function of pathogen protection. 
    • This layer is beneath the dermis and it is commonly called the subcutaneous fat or subcutis layer. This layer attaches the skin to the muscle layer below and it provides several functions such as acting as the shock absorber and providing heat and insulation for the body. 

In permanent makeup, pigment should be found in the lower level of the epidermis, the basal layer, and in the upper one-third layer of the dermis.